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I cannot think of a moment in history when some one formally founded or inaugurated the Catholic Church. We could say that the word church means a community of believers and in this sense the First Christian community was the group that accompanied Jesus. Some would say that the Church had the beginning at the first Pentecost when after receiving the Holy Spirit Peter started proclaiming the word - the Gospel. But the word Catholic church is something that appeared much later. Peter headed the community in and around Rome while other disciples and followers lead communities across Eurasia. Absence of easy communication made these develop rather along different lines. A few centuries later the difference became prominent and the church of Rome came to be called the Catholic Church while those of Syria, Alexandria and all those were called Orthodox Churches. This state continued for over thousand years when in Europe many broke away from the Roman Church and formed Protestant churches one after the other leading to the existence of numerous churches of today.

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